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Electronic Fuel Injection- The Small Wonder

February 10, 2011 by - Automotive Editor

Electronic fuel Injectors have been around since 1950, yet most cars made before 1980s used to have a big heavy carburetor instead of a fuel injector. The major difference between carburetors and fuel injectors is the size. The carburetors were large heavy and noisy while fuel injectors are small enough to fit in the palm of your hand. However, both serve the same purpose and i.e. supplying fuel to the engine.

Electronic Fuel Injection

Types

The very first kind of fuel injection system used was called throttle body fuel injection systems or the single point fuel injection systems.  These fuel injection systems don’t really require any major change in the engine except for replacing the carburetor. They had an electrically controlled valve. Later, multipoint fuel injection systems replaced them completely. The Multipoint fuel injection system includes a separate injector for each cylinder. This helps in the better metering of fuel in each cylinder.

Working

A tiny little device replacing a huge part of the engine, it really seems like a miracle. The real magic lies in the working of this small wonder. It must also be noted that since their first usage, many changes and variations have also been made in electronic fuel injectors themselves.

An injector can be defined as an electronically controlled valve. This valve opens and closes in order to supply required quantity of atomized fuel to the engine. The fuel is supplied to the injector via fuel rail and the injector sprays it into the intake valves.

Sensors

The electronic fuel injection system is controlled by the ECU of the car. However, the correct amount of fuel to be delivered is calculated mechanically rather than electronically.  The EFI system determines whether the correct amount of fuel is delivered to the injectors and the valves. This is determined with the help of several sensors including the voltage sensors, engine sensors, oxygen sensors, airflow sensors and a few more.

Advantages

EFI has completely replaced the carburetor in modern cars because of one major reason- they are better. The EFI system has a visible advantage over carburetors in several aspects.

• As we mentioned earlier, the Electronic fuel Injection systems were a notably smaller in size and less noisy

• Fuel injectors are more fuel efficient and eco-friendly as compared to carburetors.

• It improves the cylinder to cylinder distribution of fuel.

• They are also more reliable as they determine a better mixture of fuel than carburetors.

• The engine response becomes quicker.

• Engine starts smoothly and easily.

• Electronic fuel injectors require maintenance after long intervals, therefore reducing the overall maintenance costs.

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